IN THE NAME OF GOD
رشته مترجمی زبان انگلیسی پیام نور
Grammar is the fundamental logic behind the building of all thoughts .قبل از خواندن این جمله را از من هدیه بگیرید.
گرامر زبان انگلیسی
عبارت های اسم مصدر
اسم مصدر Gerund
در انگليسي اسم مصدر را با اضافه كردن ing به انتهاي شكل ساده فعل بوجود مي آورند . اسم مصدر در جمله همانند اسم عمل مي كند .
smoking – swimming – speaking – watching
موارد استفاده از اسم مصدر به شرح زير مي باشد :
1- به عنوان مبتداي جمله
Learning English is not difficult
2- به عنوان مفعول جمله كه در اين حالت پس از برخي از افعال بكار ميرود
I like swimming in the river
تذكر : افعالي كه پس از آنها مي توان از اسم مصدر استفاده كرد عبارتند از :
avoid – enjoy – finish – imagine – keep – mind – miss – like – stop – mind – dislike
تذكر : پس از برخي از افعال هم مي توان از اسم مصدر و هم از مصدر با to استفاده كرد . تعدادي از اين افعال عبارتند از :
allow – begin – forget – mean – like – prefer – remember – agree
He likes to go / going to the park
3- پس از حروف اضافه مانند : on – in – at – from – of ) ( از اسم مصدر استفاده مي شود .
I am tired of sitting here
4- پس از تركيبات زير از اسم مصدر استفاده مي شود .
It's no good – It's no use – can't help – can't stand
It is no good going outside in this rainy day
يادآوري : اسم مصدر مي تواند به تنهايي يا همراه يك عبارت بكار رود .
Learning is easy
Learning English is easy
Learning English at school is easy
I’m tired of ……………… on this chair
a. sitting b. sit c. sat d. to sit
My brother enjoys ……………… in the river
a. swim b. to swim c. swimming d. swam
Is it dangerous to drive on this road? No, ……………… on this road is not dangerous
a. drove b. driving c. drive d. drives
Gerunds, verbals that end in -ing
and that act as nouns, frequently are associated with modifiers and complements
in a gerund phrase. These phrases function as units and can do anything that a
noun can do. Notice that other phrases, especially prepositional phrases, are
frequently part of the gerund phrase.
Cramming for tests is not a good study strategy. [gerund phrase as subject]
John enjoyed swimming in the lake after dark. [gerund phrase as object]
I'm really not interested in studying biochemistry for the rest of my life. [gerund phrase as object of the preposition in ]
The Gerund Phrase
Recognize a gerund phrase when you see one.
A gerund phrase will begin with a gerund, an ing word, and might include other modifiers and/or objects. Gerund phrases always function as nouns, so they will be subjects, subject complements, or objects in the sentence. Read these examples:
Eating ice cream on a windy day can be a messy experience if you have long, untamed hair.
Eating ice cream on a windy day = subject of the verb can be.
A more disastrous activity for long-haired people is blowing giant bubble gum bubbles with the car windows down.
Blowing giant bubble gum bubbles with the car windows down = subject complement of the verb is.
Wild food adventures require getting your hair cut to a short, safe length.
Getting your hair cut to a short, safe length = direct object of the verb require.
Be careful not to
mistake a gerund phrase for a present participle phrase.
Gerund and present participle phrases are easy to confuse because they both begin with an ing word. The difference is that a gerund phrase will always function as a noun while a present participle phrase describes another word in the sentence. Check out these examples:
Jamming too much clothing into a washing machine will result in disaster.
Jamming too much clothing into a washing machine = gerund phrase, the subject of the verb will result.
Jamming too much clothing into the washing machine, Aamir saved $1.25 but had to tolerate the curious stares of other laundry patrons as his machine bucked and rumbled with the heavy load.
Jamming too much clothing into the washing machine = present participle phrase describing Aamir.
Bernard hates buttering toast with a fork.
Buttering toast with a fork = gerund phrase, the direct object of the verb hates.
Buttering toast with a fork, Bernard vowed that he would finally wash the week's worth of dirty dishes piled in the sink.
Buttering toast with a fork = present participle phrase describing Bernard.
My dog's most annoying habit is hogging the middle of the bed.
Hogging the middle of the bed = gerund phrase, the subject complement of the linking verb is.
Last night I had to sleep on the couch because I found my dog Floyd hogging the middle of the bed.
Hogging the middle of the bed = present participle phrase describing Floyd.
Examples of gerund phrases
Running across a busy street can be very dangerous for a young child.
This gerund phrase acts as the subject of the sentence.
Jeffrey loves seeing good movies.
This gerund phrase acts as a direct object of loves. Within the phrase itself is a second direct object. Movies is the direct object of seeing.
The difficult part of our vacation will be getting to Florida.
This gerund phrase acts as a predicate noun. The and difficult modify part. Of our vacation is a prepositional phrase. The subject of the sentence is part. Will be is the linking verb. Getting is the gerund. Thus, part and getting are the same thing.
Sandra was awarded a medal after winning the race.
This gerund phrase acts as the object of the preposition after.
Learning this material means making up your own examples with as many variations as you can think of. For example, can you provide an example of a sentence that has an adjective clause that has a gerund in it? Can you make an example of a sentence with a participial phrase that has a gerund in it? Play games with these concepts. It can be great fun while helping you to learn the basic thought patterns.
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